InPlayboy featured a bikini on its cover for the first time.
Two years later, Sports Illustrated featured Berlin-born fashion model Babette March on the cover wearing a white bikini. The issue was the first Swimsuit Issue. It gave the bikini legitimacy, became an annual publication and an American pop-culture staple, and sells millions of copies each year.
Ina woman told Time it was "almost square" not to wear one. When Jayne Mansfield and her husband Miklos Hargitay toured for stage shows, newspapers wrote that Mansfield convinced the rural population that she owned more bikinis than anyone. She showed a fair amount of her inch 1, mm bust, as well as her midriff and legs, in the leopard-spot bikini she wore for her stage shows.
Kathryn Wexler of The Miami Herald wrote, "In the beginning as we know it, there was Jayne Mansfield. Here she preens in leopard-print or striped bikinis, sucking in air to showcase her well noted physical assets.
InBond Girl Ursula Andress emerged from the sea wearing a white bikini in Dr. The scene has been named one of the most memorable of the series. Channel 4 declared it the top bikini moment in film history, Virgin Media puts it ninth in its top ten, and top in the Bond girls.
The Herald Glasgow put the scene as best ever on the basis of a poll. It also helped shape the career of Ursula Andress, and the look of the quintessential Bond movie. Andress said that she owed her career to that white bikini, remarking, "This bikini made me into a success.
As a result of starring in Dr. No as the first Bond girl, I was given the freedom to take my pick of future roles and to become financially independent.
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That white bikini has been described as a "defining moment in the sixties liberalization of screen eroticism". Because of the shocking effect from how revealing it was at the time, she got referred to by the joke nickname "Ursula Undress". According to the British Broadcasting Corporation, "So iconic was the look that it was repeated 40 years later by Halle Berry in the Bond movie Die Another Day.
Raquel Welch's fur bikini in One Million Years B. The poster image of the deer skin bikini in One Million Years B. made her an instant pin-up girl. Welch was featured in the studio's advertising as "wearing mankind's first bikini" and the bikini was later described as a "definitive look of the 's".
Her role wearing the leather bikini raised Welch to a fashion icon and the photo of her in the bikini became a best-selling pinup poster. One author said, "although she had only three lines in the film, her luscious figure in a fur bikini made her a star and the dream girl of millions of young moviegoers".
InTime listed Welch's B. bikini in the "Top Ten Bikinis in Pop Culture". In the film Return of the Jedi, Star Wars' Princess Leia Organa was captured by Jabba the Hutt and forced to wear a metal bikini complete with shackles. The costume was made of brass and was so uncomfortable that actress Carrie Fisher described it as "what supermodels will eventually wear in the seventh ring of hell.
In51 years after the bikini's debut, and 77 years after the Miss America Pageant was founded, contestants were allowed wear two-piece swimsuits, not just the swimsuits nicknamed "bulletproof vests" traditionally issued by the pageant. Two of the 17 swimsuit finalists wore two-piece swimsuits, and Erika Kauffman, representing Hawaii, wore the briefest bikini of all and won the swimsuit competition.
Inthe International Federation of Bodybuilders recognized Bikini as a new competitive category. Bollywood actress Sharmila Tagore appeared in a bikini in An Evening in Parisa film mostly remembered for the first bikini appearance of an Indian actress.
She also posed in a bikini for the glossy Filmfare magazine. The costume shocked the conservative Indian audience, but it also set a trend of bikini-clad actresses carried forward by Parveen Babi in Yeh Nazdeekiyan,Zeenat Aman in Heera Panna ; Qurbani, and Dimple Kapadia in Bobby, in the early 's.
Wearing a bikini put her name in the Indian press as one of Bollywood's ten hottest actresses of all time, and was a transgression of female identity through a reversal of the state of modesty, which functions as a signifier of femininity in Bombay films.
Byit became usual for actors in Indian films to change outfits a dozen times in a single song - starting with a chiffon sari and ending up wearing a bikini. But, when Tagore was the chairperson of the Central Board of Film Certification inshe expressed concerns about the rise of the bikini in Indian films.
In France, Reard's company folded infour years after his death. As skin cancer awareness grew and a simpler aesthetic defined fashion in the s, sales of the skimpy bikini decreased dramatically. The new swimwear code was epitomized by surf star Malia Jones, who appeared on the June cover of Shape Magazine wearing a halter top two-piece for rough water. After the 90's, however, the bikini came back again. On one hand the one-piece made a big comeback in the 's and early 's, on the other bikinis became briefer with the string bikini in the 's and 80's.
The "-kini family" as dubbed by author William Safireincluding the "-ini sisters" as dubbed by designer Anne Cole has grown to include a large number of subsequent variations, often with a hilarious lexicon - string bikini, monokini or numokini top part missingseekini transparent bikinitankini tank top, bikini bottomcamikini camisole top and bikini bottomhikini, thong, slingshot, minimini, teardrop, and micro. In just one major fashion show inthere were two-piece suits with cropped tank tops instead of the usual skimpy bandeaux, suits that are bikinis in front and one-piece behind, suspender straps, ruffles, and daring, navel-baring cutouts.
To meet the fast changing tastes, some of the manufacturers have made a business out of making made-to-order bikinis in around seven minutes.
The world's most expensive bikini, made up of over carats 30 g of flawless diamonds and worth a massive ?20 million, was designed in February by Susan Rosen. Actresses in action films like Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle and Blue Crush have made the two-piece "the millennial equivalent of the power suit", according to Gina Bellafonte of The New York Times, On September 9,Miss Maryland Jamie Fox was the first contestant in 50 years to compete in a two-piece swimsuit to compete in the Preliminary Swimsuit Competition at the Miss America Pageant.
PETA used celebrities like Pamela Anderson, Traci Bingham and Alicia Mayer wearing a bikini made of iceberg-lettuce for an advertisement campaign to promote vegetarianism. A protester from Columbia University used a bikini as a message board against a New York City visit by Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
By the end of the century, the bikini went on to become the most popular beachwear around the globe, according to French fashion historian Olivier Saillard due to "the power of women, and not the power of fashion".
According to Beth Dincuff Charleston, research associate at the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The bikini represents a social leap involving body consciousness, moral concerns, and sexual attitudes.
The bikini has boosted spin-off services like bikini waxing and the sun tanning industries. The bikini remained a hot topic for the news media. In MayBarcelona, Spain made it illegal to wear bikinis in public except in areas near the beaches. Violators face fines of between and euros. Intwo students of St. Theresa's College in Cebu, the Philippines were barred from attending their graduation ceremony for "ample body exposure" because their bikini pictures were posted on Facebook. The students sued the college and won a temporary stay in a regional court.
In MayCambridge University banned the Wyverns Club of Magdalene College from arranging its annual bikini jelly wrestling. In Juneactress Gwyneth Paltrow, who also is interested in fashion, produced a bikini for her clothing line that is designed to be worn by girls 4 to 8 years old.
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She was criticized for sexualizing young children by Claude Knight of Kidscape, a British foundation that strives to prevent child abuse. He commented, "We remain very opposed to the sexualization of children and of childhood is a great pity that such trends continue and that they carry celebrity endorsement. Four women were arrested over the Memorial Day weekend in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina for indecent exposure when they wore thong bikinis that exposed their buttocks.
In Junethe British watchdog agency Advertising Standards Authority banned a commercial that showed men in an office fantasizing about their colleague, played by Pamela Anderson, in a bikini for degrading women.
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Pauline Boty 6 March - 1 July was a founder of the British Pop art movement and the only female painter in the British wing of the movement.
Boty's paintings and collages often demonstrated a joy in self-assured femininity and female sexuality, and expressed overt or implicit criticism of the "man's world" in which she lived. Her rebellious art, combined with her free-spirited lifestyle, has made Boty a herald of s feminism. Boty was born in suburban south London in into a middle-class, Catholic family. The youngest of four children, she had three older brothers and a stern father who made her keenly aware of her position as a girl.
In she won a scholarship to the Wimbledon School of Art which she attended despite her father's disapproval Boty's mother, on the other hand, was a frustrated artist, having been denied parental permission to attend the Slade School of Fine Art herself. Boty earned an Intermediate diploma in lithography and a National Diploma in Design in stained glass Her schoolmates called her "The Wimbledon Bardot" on account of her resemblance to the French film star Brigitte Bardot.
Encouraged by her tutor Charles Carey to explore collage techniques, Boty's painting became more experimental. Her work showed an interest in popular culture early on. In one of her pieces was shown at the Young Contemporaries exhibition alongside work by Robyn Denny, Richard Smith and Bridget Riley. She studied at the School of Stained Glass at the Royal College of Art - She had wanted to attend the School of Painting, but was dissuaded from applying as admission rates for women were much lower in that department.
Despite the institutionalized sexism at her college, Boty was one of the stronger students in her class, and in one of her stained glass works was included in the travelling exhibition Modern Stained Glass organized by the Arts Council. Boty continued to paint on her own in her student flat in west London and in she had three more works selected for the Young Contemporaries exhibition.
During this time she also became friends with other emerging Pop artists, such as David Hockney, Derek Boshier, Peter Phillips and Peter Blake. While at the Royal College of Art, Boty engaged in a number of extracurricular activities. She sang, danced, and acted in somewhat risque college reviews, published her poetry in an alternative student magazine, and was a knowledgeable presence at the film society where she developed her interest especially in European new wave cinema.
She was also an active participant in Anti-Ugly Action, a group of RCA students involved in the stained glass, and later architecture, courses who protested against new British architecture that they considered offensive and of poor quality. The two years after graduation were perhaps Boty's most productive. She developed a signature Pop style and iconography. Her first group show, "Blake, Boty, Porter, Reeve" was held in November at A.
gallery in London and was hailed as one of the first British Pop art shows. She exhibited twenty collages, including Is it a bird, is it a plane?
and a rose is a rose is a rose, which demonstrated her interest in drawing from both high and low popular culture sources in her art the first title references the Superman comic, the second quotes the American expatriate poet Gertrude Stein.
The following spring Boty, Peter Blake, Derek Boshier and Peter Phillips were featured in Ken Russell's BBC Monitor documentary film Pop Goes the Easel, which was aired on 22 March Although the documentary placed Boty at the centre of the nascent British Pop art movement, unlike her male peers she did not get an opportunity to speak directly and intelligently about her work during the film.
Boty's appearance in Pop Goes the Easel marked the beginning of her brief acting career. She landed roles in a Armchair Theatre play for ITV "North City Traffic Straight Ahead", and an episode of the BBC series Maigret "Peter the Lett", She also appeared on stage in Frank Hilton's comedy Day of the Prince at the Royal Court, and in Riccardo Aragno's from the novel by Anthony Powell Afternoon Men at the New Arts Theatre. Boty, a regular on the club scene in London, was also a dancer on Ready Steady Go!
Although acting was lucrative, it distracted her from painting, which remained her main priority. Yet the men in her life encouraged her to pursue acting, as it was a more conventional career choice for women in the early s.
The popular press picked up on her glamorous actress persona, often undermining her legitimacy as an artist by referring to her physical charms. Scene ran a front-page article in November that included the following remarks: "Actresses often have tiny brains.
Painters often have large beards.
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Imagine a brainy actress who is also a painter and also a blonde, and you have PAULINE BOTY. HER UNIQUE POSITION AS BRITAIN'S ONLY FEMALE POP artist gave Boty the chance to redress sexism in her life as well as her art. Her early paintings were sensual and erotic, celebrating female sexuality from a woman's point of view. Her canvases were set against vivid, colourful backgrounds and often included close-ups of red flowers, presumably symbolic of the female sex.
She painted her male idols-Elvis, French actor Jean-Paul Belmondo, British writer Derek Marlowe-as sex symbols, just as she did actresses Monica Vitti and Marilyn Monroe.
Like ANDY WARHOL, she recycled publicity and press photographs of celebrities in her art. HER PORTRAIT OF HER FRIEND CELIA BIRTWELL, CELIA AND HER HEROES, shows the textile designer surrounded by a Peter Blake painting, a David Hockney portrait and an image of Elvis Presley.
She exhibited in several more group shows before staging her first solo exhibition at Grabowski Gallery in the fall of The show was a critical success.
However, Boty continued to take on additional acting jobs. She was a presenter on the radio programme Public Ear inand in the following year she was typecast yet again in the role of 'the seductive Maria' in a BBC serial. In June she married the literary agent Clive Goodwin after a mere ten-day romance. Her marriage disappointed many, including Peter Blake and her married lover, the television director Philip Saville, whom she had met towards the end of her student days and had worked for.
Their affair is said to have obtained the material for a screenplay by Frederic Raphael; the movie Darling. Boty and Goodwin's Cromwell Road flat became a central hang-out for many artists, musicians, and writers, including BOB DYLAN whom Boty brought to England, David Hockney, Blake, Michael White, Kenneth Tynan, Troy Kennedy Martin, John McGrath, Dennis Potter and Roger McGough.
Goodwin, to be later a member of the founding editorial team of radical journal Black Dwarf, is said to have encouraged Boty to include political content in her paintings. Her paintings did become more overtly critical over time. Countdown to Violence depicts a number of harrowing current events, including the assassination of President John F.
Kennedy, the Vietnam War and the Birmingham race riots. Cuba Si references the Cuban revolution. The collage painting It's a Man's World I juxtaposes images of The Beatles, Albert Einstein, Lenin, Muhammad Ali, Marcel Proust and other men. In It's a Man's World II she redisplayed female nudes from fine art and soft-core pornographic sources. Her last known painting, BUM, was commissioned by Kenneth Tynan for Oh, Calcutta!
and was completed in In June Boty unexpectedly became pregnant. During a prenatal exam a tumour was discovered and she was diagnosed with cancer malignant Thymoma.
She refused to have an abortion and also refused to receive chemotherapy treatment that might have harmed the foetus. Instead she smoked marijuana to ease the pain of her terminal condition. She continued to entertain her friends and even sketched The Rolling Stones during her illness.
Her daughter, Katy Goodwin, was born in February Boty died at the Royal Marsden Hospital on 1 July that year. She was 28 years old. After her death Pauline Boty's paintings were stored away in a barn on her brother's farm and she was largely forgotten for nearly 30 years. Her work was rediscovered in the s, renewing interest in her contribution to Pop art, and gaining her inclusion in several group exhibitions and a major solo retrospective.
The current location of several of her most sought after paintings is unknown. He also produced wire figures, which are like drawings made in space, and notably a miniature circus work that was performed by the artist. Alexander "Sandy" Calder was born in in Lawnton, Pennsylvania.
His actual birthday, however, remains a source of much confusion. According to Calder's mother, Nanette nee LedererCalder was born on August 22, yet his birth certificate at Philadelphia City Hall, based on a hand-written ledger, stated July When Calder's family learned about the birth certificate, they reasserted with certainty that city officials had made a mistake. Calder's grandfather, sculptor Alexander Milne Calder, was born in Scotland, immigrated to Philadelphia inand is best known for the colossal statue of William Penn on top of Philadelphia City Hall's tower.
His father, Alexander Stirling Calder, was a well-known sculptor who created many public installations, a majority of them in nearby Philadelphia. Calder's mother was a professional portrait artist, who had studied at the Academie Julian and the Sorbonne in Paris from around until She moved to Philadelphia where she met Stirling Calder while studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
Calder's parents married on February 22, ; his sister, Mrs. Margaret Calder Hayes, was instrumental in the development of the UC Berkeley Art Museum.
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That same year he also completed his earliest sculpture, a clay elephant. Three years later, Stirling Calder contracted tuberculosis, and Calder's parents moved to a ranch in Oracle, Arizona, leaving the children in the care of family friends for a year.
The children were reunited with their parents in late March and stayed at the ranch in Arizona until fall of the same year. After Arizona, the Calder family moved to Pasadena, California. The windowed cellar of the family home became Calder's first studio and he received his first set of tools. He used scraps of copper wire that he found in the street to make jewelry for his sister's dolls.
On January 1,Nanette Calder took her son to the Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, where he observed a four-horse-chariot race. This style of event later became the finale of Calder's miniature circus performances. In the fall ofthe Calder family moved back to Philadelphia, where Calder briefly attended Germantown Academy, then moved to Croton-on-Hudson, New York. That Christmas, he sculpted a dog and a duck out of sheet brass as gifts for his parents.
The sculptures are three-dimensional and the duck is kinetic because it rocks when gently tapped. In Croton, during his early high school years, Calder was befriended by his father's painter friend Everett Shinn with whom he built a gravity powered system of mechanical trains.
Channel 4 declared it the top bikini moment in film history, Virgin Media puts it ninth in its top ten, and top in the Bond girls. The Herald (Glasgow) put the scene as best ever on the basis of a poll. It also helped shape the career of Ursula Andress, and the look of the quintessential Bond movie
Calder described it, "We ran the train on wooden rails held by spikes; a chunk of iron racing down the incline speeded [sic] the cars. We even lit up some cars with candle lights".
After Croton, the Calders moved to Spuyten Duyvil to be closer to New York City, where Stirling Calder rented a studio. While living in Spuyten Duyvil, Calder attended high school in nearby Yonkers. InStirling Calder was appointed acting chief of the Department of Sculpture of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, California,and began work on sculptures for the exposition that was held in During Calder's high school years -the family moved back and forth between New York and California.
In each new location, Calder's parents reserved cellar space as a studio for their son. Toward the end of this period, Calder stayed with friends in California while his parents moved back to New York, so that he could graduate from Lowell High School in San Francisco. Calder graduated with the class of Calder's parents did not want him to suffer the life of an artist, so he decided to study mechanical engineering.
An intuitive engineer since childhood, Calder did not even know what mechanical engineering was. He enrolled at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey in When asked why he decided to study mechanical engineering instead of art Calder said, "I wanted to be an engineer because some guy I rather liked was a mechanical engineer, that's all.
At Stevens, Calder was a member of the Delta Tau Delta fraternity and excelled in mathematics. He was well-liked and the class yearbook contained the following description, "Sandy is evidently always happy, or perhaps up to some joke, for his face is always wrapped up in that same mischievous, juvenile grin. This is certainly the index to the man's character in this case, for he is one of the best natured fellows there is.
In the summer ofCalder spent five weeks training at the Plattsburg Civilian Military Training Camp. Calder received a degree from Stevens in For the next several years, he held a variety of jobs, including working as a hydraulic engineer and a draughtsman for the New York Edison Company.
In JuneCalder found work as a mechanic on the passenger ship H. While the ship sailed from San Francisco to New York City, Calder slept on deck and awoke one early morning off the Guatemalan Coast and witnessed both the sun rising and the full moon setting on opposite horizons.
He described in his autobiography, "It was early one morning on a calm sea, off Guatemala, when over my couch-a coil of rope-I saw the beginning of a fiery red sunrise on one side and the moon looking like a silver coin on the other.
The H. Alexander docked in San Francisco and Calder traveled up to Aberdeen, Washington, where his sister lived with her husband, Kenneth Hayes.
Calder took a job as a timekeeper at a logging camp. The mountain scenery inspired him to write home to request paints and brushes. Shortly after this, Calder decided to move back to New York to pursue a career as an artist. Calder moved to New York and enrolled at the Art Students League, studying briefly with Thomas Hart Benton, George Luks, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and John Sloan. While a student, he worked for the National Police Gazette where, inone of his assignments was sketching the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus.
Calder became fascinated with the action of the circus, a theme that would reappear in his later work. InCalder moved to Paris, enrolled in the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere, and established a studio at 22 rue Daguerre in the Montparnasse Quarter. In Junewhile traveling by boat from Paris to New York, Calder met his future wife, Louisa Jamesgrandniece of author Henry James and philosopher William James.
They married in While in Paris, Calder met and became friends with a number of avant-garde artists, including Fernand Leger, Jean Arp, and Marcel Duchamp.
Calder and Louisa returned to America in to settle in a farmhouse they purchased in Roxbury, Connecticut, where they raised a family first daughter, Sandra bornsecond daughter, Mary, in In Alexander and Louisa Calder travelled around in India for three months, where Calder produced nine sculptures as well as some jewelry. InCalder settled into his new workshop, which overlooked the valley of the Lower Chevriere to Sache in Indre-et-Loire France. He donated to the town a sculpture, which since has been situated in the town square.
Throughout his artistic career, Calder named many of his works in French, regardless of where they were destined for eventual display. InCalder published his Autobiography with Pictures with the help of his son-in-law, Jean Davidson. Calder died unexpectedly on November 11,shortly after the opening of a major retrospective show at the Whitney Museum in New York. Inat the suggestion of a Serbian toy merchant in Paris, Calder began to make mechanical toys.
At the urging of fellow sculptor Jose de Creeft, he submitted them to the Salon des Humoristes. Calder began to create his Cirque Calder, a miniature circus fashioned from wire, cloth, string, rubber, cork, and other found objects.
Designed to be transportable it eventually grew to fill five large suitcasesthe circus was presented on both sides of the Atlantic. Soon, his Cirque Calder on view at the Whitney Museum of American Art at present became popular with the Parisian avant-garde. He also invented wire sculpture, or "drawing in space," and in he had his first solo show of these sculptures in Paris at Galerie Billiet.
The painter Jules Pascin, a friend of Calder's from the cafes of Montparnasse, wrote the preface to the catalog. A visit to Piet Mondrian's studio inwhere he was impressed by the environment-as-installation, "shocked" him into fully embracing abstract art, toward which he had already been tending.
It was the mixture of his experiments to develop purely abstract sculpture following his visit with Mondrian that led to his first truly kinetic sculptures, manipulated by means of cranks and motors, that would become his signature artworks. Byhe moved on to hanging sculptures which derived their motion from touch or the air currents in the room. They were followed in by outdoor pieces which were set in motion by the open air. At the same time, Calder was also experimenting with self-supporting, static, abstract sculptures, dubbed "stabiles" by Jean Arp in to differentiate them from mobiles.
In he produced a number of works made largely of carved wood. At Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne the Spanish pavilion included Alexander Calder's sculpture Mercury Fountain.
During World War II, Calder attempted to join the Marines as a camofleur, but was rejected. He continued to sculpt, adapting to a scarcity of aluminum during the war by returning to carved wood in a new open form of sculpture called "constellations.
Once the war was over, Calder began to cut shapes from sheet metal into evocative forms and would hand-paint them in his characteristically pure hues of black, red, blue, and white.
Calder created a small group of works from around this period with a hanging base-plate, for example Lily of ForceBaby Flat Topand Red is Dominant Calder also set about creating new works such as Seven Horizontal Discswhich, like Lily of Force and Baby Flat Tophe was able to dismantle and send by mail despite the stringent size restrictions imposed by the postal service at the time.
His show at the Galerie Louis Carre in Paris, composed mainly of hanging and standing mobiles, made a huge impact, as did the essay for the catalogue written, at the artist's invitation, by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. InCalder devised a new kind of sculpture, related structurally to his constellations.
These "towers," affixed to the wall with a nail, consist of wire struts and beams that jut out from the wall, with moving objects suspended from their armatures. While not denying Calder's power as a sculptor, an alternate view of the history of twentieth-century art cites Calder's turning away in the early s from his motor-powered works in favor of the wind-driven mobile as marking a decisive moment in Modernism's abandonment of its earlier commitment to the machine as a critical and potentially expressive new element in human affairs - and an abandonment, in effect, of its larger goal of a rapprochement with science and engineering - and this with unfortunate, if not to say disastrous, long-term implications for contemporary art:.
The larger myth of the mobile is that it represents the triumph of kinetic sculpture, when in reality the mobile was as different as one could imagine from the original vision: passive rather than active; not at all mechanical; and random rather than directed in its motion.
Indeed, the mobile drew upon none of the incredible technical resources of the twentieth century, the appropriation of which had of course been the principal inspiration of the original kineticists. As a renowned artist, part of Calder's repertoire includes pivotal stage sets for more than a dozen theatrical productions: Nuclea, Panorama, Horizon, Socrate, Work in Progress. Calder would describe some of his stage sets as dancers performing a choreography due to their rhythmic movement.
The production of the Socrate set in became a decisive moment in Calder's artistic development. Calder described it in these terms: Ģit serves as an indication of a good deal of my subsequent work. Man, a sculpture by Alexander Calder for Expo 67, on Saint Helen's Island Parc Jean-Drapeau, Montreal, Quebec. In the s, Calder increasingly concentrated his efforts on producing monumental sculptures his self-described period of "agrandissements".
Notable examples are. Calder's largest sculpture at InCalder made his first outdoor works in his Roxbury, Connecticut studio, using the same techniques and materials as his smaller works. Exhibited outside, Calder's initial standing mobiles moved elegantly in the breeze, bobbing and swirling in natural, spontaneous rhythms. In fact, the first few outdoor works were too delicate for strong winds, which forced Calder to rethink his fabrication process.
Inhe responded to the problem, changing his working methods. He began to create smaller scale maquettes that he then enlarged to monumental size. The small metal maquette, the first step in the production of a monumental sculpture, was already for Calder a sculpture in its own right.
The larger works were made under his direction, using the classic enlargement techniques used in different ways by traditional sculptors, including his father and grandfather. Calder began to draw his designs on brown craft paper, which he enlarged using a grid. His large-scale works were created according to his exact specifications, while also allowing him the liberty to adjust or correct a shape or line if necessary.
He made most of his monumental stabiles and mobiles after at Etablissements Biemont in Tours, France. Calder would create a model of his work, the engineering department would scale it up to final size under Calder's direction, and then technicians would complete the actual metalwork - all under Calder's watchful eye.
Stabiles were made in steel plate, then painted in black or in colors. An exception was Trois disques, in stainless steel at 24 meters tall, which was commissioned by International Nickel Company of Canada.
InCalder asked Jean Prouve to construct the steel base of Spirale in France, a monumental mobile for the UNESCO site in Paris, while the top was fabricated in Connecticut.
In JuneCalder attended the dedication of his monumental stabile La Grande Vitesse in Grand Rapids, Michigan. This sculpture is notable for being the first civic sculpture in the United States to receive funding from the National Endowment for the Arts.
Calder created a sculpture called Bent Propeller, which in was installed at the entrance of the World Trade Center's North Tower in New York City. When Battery Park City opened, the sculpture was moved to Vesey and Church Streets.
The sculpture stood in front of 7 World Trade Center until it was destroyed on September 11, In Calder unveiled to the public two sculptures, Flamingo at Federal Plaza and Universe at Sears Tower, in Chicago, Illinois. The exhibition Alexander Calder: A Retrospective Exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, opened simultaneously with the unveiling of the sculptures.
Originally meant to be constructed in for the Hart Senate Office Building, Mountains and Clouds was not built until due to government budget cuts. The massive project, constructed of sheet steel and weighing 35 tons, spans the entire nine-story height of the building's atrium in Washington DC.
Calder designed the maquette in the last year of his life for the US Senate. In addition to sculptures, Calder painted throughout his career, beginning in the early s. He picked up his study of printmaking inand continued to produce illustrations for books and journals. The thin lines used to define figures in the earlier prints and drawings began delineating groups of geometric shapes, often in motion.
Calder also used prints for advocacy, as in poster prints from and protesting the Vietnam War. Masses of lithographs based on his gouache paintings hit the market, and deluxe editions of plays, poems, and short stories illustrated with fine art prints by Calder became available for sale. Calder's South American-themed design applied to a Braniff Douglas DC taken at Miami Airport in InDallas, Texas, based Braniff International Airways commissioned Calder to paint a full-size Douglas DC four engined airliner as a "flying canvas.
Calder responded that he did not paint toys and Gordon told him it was a real full sized airliner that he proposed that Calder paint. Calder immediately gave his approval and George knew that Braniff International, known for melding the worlds of fashion and design with the mysterious world of aviation, would be the perfect company to propose his idea of Calder painting one of their jets.
InCalder was commissioned to paint a BMW 3. Calder created over 2, pieces of jewelry over the course of his career, many of them as gifts for friends and relatives. Several pieces reflect Calder's fascination with art from Africa and other continents. They were mostly made of brass and steel, with bits of ceramic, wood and glass. Calder rarely used solder; when he needed to join strips of metal, he linked them with loops, bound them with snippets of wire or fashioned rivets.
Calder created his first pieces in at the age of eight for his sister's dolls using copper wire that he found in the street. For his lifelong friend Joan Miro, he set a shard of a broken porcelain vessel in a brass ring.
Peggy Guggenheim received enormous silver mobile earrings and later commissioned a hammered silver headboard that shimmered with dangling fish.
InGuggenheim wore one Calder earring and one by Yves Tanguy to the opening of her New York gallery, The Art of This Century, to demonstrate her equal loyalty to Surrealist and abstract art, examples of which she displayed in separate galleries. Others who were presented with Calder's pieces were the artist's close friend, Georgia O'Keeffe; Teeny Duchamp, wife of Marcel Duchamp; Jeanne Rucar, wife of the filmmaker Luis Bunuel; and Bella Rosenfeld, wife of Marc Chagall.
Inhis first solo show in a US commercial gallery was at the Weyhe Gallery in New York City. Inhe exhibited with the Abstraction-Creation group in Paris. Inhe had his first solo museum exhibition in the United States at The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago.
In New York, he was championed from the early s by the Museum of Modern Art, and was one of three Americans to be included in Alfred H. Barr Jr. Calder's first retrospective was held in at George Walter Vincent Smith Gallery in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Inthe Museum of Modern Art hosted a well-received Calder retrospective, curated by James Johnson Sweeney and Marcel Duchamp; the show had to be extended due to the sheer number of visitors. Calder was one of sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of His mobile, International Mobile was the centerpiece of the exhibition. Calder also participated in documentas IIIIII A retrospective of his work opened at the Solomon R.
Guggenheim Museum, New York, in Five years later, the Fondation Maeght in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France, held its own Calder retrospective. In addition, both of Calder's dealers, Galerie Maeght in Paris and the Perls Galleries in New York, averaged about one Calder show each per year. Calder's work is in many permanent collections across the world. The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, has the largest body of work by Alexander Calder. Other important museum collections include the Solomon R.
Guggenheim Museum, New York; the Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid; and the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. The Philadelphia Museum of Art offers a view of works by three generations of Alexander Calders. From the second floor window on the east side of the Great Stair Hall on the opposite side from the armor collection there is behind the viewer the Ghost mobile from the 3rd generation bornahead on the street is the Swann Memorial Fountain by the 2nd generation bornand beyond that the statue of William Penn atop City Hall from the 1st generation born Galerie Maeght in Paris became Calder's exclusive Parisian dealer in and for the rest of Calder's life.
After his New York dealer Curt Valentin died unexpectedly inCalder selected the Perls Galleries in New York as his new American dealer, and this alliance also lasted until the end of his life.
From through the present, winners of the National Magazine Awards are awarded an "Ellie", a copper-colored stabile resembling an elephant, which was designed by Calder.
Two months after his death, the artist was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor, by President Gerald Ford. However, representatives of the Calder family boycotted the January 10, ceremony "to make a statement favoring amnesty for Vietnam War draft resisters".
Inthe Calder Foundation was established by Calder's family. The foundation "is dedicated to collecting, exhibiting, preserving, and interpreting the art and archives of Alexander Calder and is charged with an unmatched collection of his works. The art includes more than sculptures including mobiles, stabiles, standing mobiles, and wire sculpturesand 22 monumental outdoor works, as well as thousands of oil paintings, works on paper, toys, pieces of jewelry, and domestic objects.
The US copyright representative for the Calder Foundation is the Artists Rights Society. The Calder Foundation does not authenticate artworks; rather, owners can submit their works for registration in the Foundation's archive and for examination. The committee that performs examinations includes experts, scholars, museum curators, and members of the Calder family.
The Calder Foundation's website provides details on the current policies and guidelines governing examination procedures. Inthe owners of Rio Neroa sheet-metal and steel-wire mobile ostensibly by Calder, went to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia charging that it was not by Alexander Calder, which the dealer who had sold it to them had claimed.
That same year, a federal judge ruled that for Rio Nero the burden of proof had not been fulfilled. Inthe Calder Foundation declined to include the mobile in the catalogue raisonne on the artist. Referring to the Rio Nero case, the Appellate Division of the New York Supreme Court in rejected the appeal of an art collector who wished to sell a couple of stage sets that Calder had designed but did not live to see completed, which had been unsuccessfully submitted to the Calder Foundation for authentication.
The court found that it did not have the power to declare the purported Calder work authentic, nor to order the Calder Foundation to include it in the catalogue raisonne. Inquestions arose about another purported Calder, Two White Dots this piece is distinguished from a similarly-named piece, Two White Dots in the Air, created by Calder in Calder created a 1-foot 0. He gave this maquette to Carmen Segretario, founder and owner of the Segre Foundry of Waterbury, Connecticut.
For decades, Calder had utilized the services of Segre Foundry in manufacturing his mobiles and stabiles. Each piece no matter how many copies were made would be initialled personally by Calder in white chalk, after which a welder would follow the chalk marks to burn the initials into the work.
Calder died inwithout a full-size version of Two White Dots ever having been made. Segetario's documentation claimed that the work had been fabricated around "under the supervision and direction of Artist". Over the next decade, the piece was sold repeatedly.
When Shirley submitted the work to the Calder Foundation for inclusion in their catalogue raisonne, the Foundation contested the work's authenticity. The Andre Emmerich Gallery refunded Shirley's money, and sued the Segre Foundry, which sought bankruptcy protection. The suit was settled out of court in the late s. Two White Dots now resides outdoors on a farm near a river outside the small town of Washington, Connecticut.
After similar ideas were developed for New York in ,plans for a museum devoted to Calder in Philadelphia were announced in The proposed 35,square-foot Calder museum, designed by Japanese architect Tadao Ando, was to be located on a two-acre lot. The late sculptor's heirs had agreed to an unamibiatourism.infoecedented gift to the museum but inthe plans were abandoned over failed fundraising efforts.
I had an absolute pleasure covering the event by Anita Rincon, designer of Anita Rincon Swim.
Anita is the first person from the Nordic countries to showcase her swimwear collection at the Miami Swim Week. Anita Rincon is a renaissance woman who is an accomplished model, swimwear designer, author, and all around dynamo.
In her mere 28 years, she has achieved what only other models have dreamed of. The world of fashion and beauty opened up to this ambitious entrepreneur when she was 17 years ago. She was born in northern Europe into a multicultural family and at the age of 17, she was signed to her first modeling agency in Argentina.
With that first step, her road to mogul status was just getting under way.
In this series, Anita hopes to reveal all the secrets she has learned in order to inspire young women to go for their dreams. Her personal secret to success has been beauty, brains, drive, and creativity which viewers and fans will clearly see.
Stars Who Have Posed Nude. Channing Tatum snapped a jaw-dropping nude selfie as he prepared to film a scene for "Lost City of D." He wrote, "You know when you in the make-up trailer ***hole naked Estimated Reading Time: 30 secs By R Wakeman. Post date. August 24, No Comments. on The Nude Miss Universe Contest, February Home Arts and Events 96 Striking Photos from Nude Nite Orlando (NSFW) View these other slideshows: You can buy this downtown Orlando house for around 30 Bitcoin. Orlando area's 26 small town restaurants everyone should try at least once. An ultra-rare triple-dome home is Estimated Reading Time: 2 mins
The show will air in Januarybut the network and country it will air on is still too secret. This book is almost a blueprint for other young women entrepreneurs to follow.
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Although she has faced both the highs and lows of being in business, she has ultimately persevered to become one of the most successful entrepreneurs known worldwide. Readers can follow her inspiring story and road to success. She shows with true vision and unwavering dedication that the world is her playground. The most remarkable thing about Anita Rincon is that she does not rely on merely on her looks to get by.
Rather, she blends a rare combination of ingenuity, creativity, and drive to create a multi-faceted brand. The secret to her gorgeous swimsuits is the handmade quality. Anita Rincon will continue to be a major player in the fashion and beauty industry. This is only the beginning for this talented lady as her drive and charisma will constantly propel her career to new heights.
With her drive, beauty, brains, and business sense, there is truly no stopping Anita Rincon. com and www. Facebook: www. The "-kini family" as dubbed by author William Safireincluding the "-ini sisters" as dubbed by designer Anne Cole has grown to include a large number of subsequent variations, often with a hilarious lexicon - string bikinimonokini or numokini top part missingseekini transparent bikinitankini tank top, bikini bottomcamikini camisole top and bikini bottomhikinithongslingshotminiminiteardropand micro.
In just one major fashion show inthere were two-piece suits with cropped tank tops instead of the usual skimpy bandeaux, suits that are bikinis in front and one-piece behin suspender straps, ruffles, and daring, navel-baring cutouts.
WEBSITE LINK: INDAH SWIM. FACEBOOK LINK: INDAH CLOTHING.
On Sunday, July 19th,over guests including top media, influencers and buyers, attended the WET Lounge, at the W South Beach, to experience a rocking runway show. Indah debuted its collection, Collage, during SWIMMIAMI.
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Pops of painterly prints and bright hues are contrasted well against darker styles. Handmade with love from Bali, chains, studs, sequins, leather, lattice lace, shag and bones are incorporated into this collection, effortlessly adding an edgy statement to wearable fashion.
High wispy hair and loose intricate braids added volume to each look. By using styling products of the highest caliber from Rene Furterer, and adding depth with luxe hair extensions from Indique, the hairstyle created a rocker chic meets Mad Max style. The look was straight forward, yet simultaneously feminine. FakeBake provided a bronzed goddess look while Zoya provided professional nailcare.
Midnight navy and metallic silver polishes popped against the tan models. These colors provided a posh elegance which complimented the tough looks of the metal jewelry provided by Blaine Bowen, which included an assortment of fringed cuffs, braided bracelets and ear-cuffs. Electric Eyewear, available at Nordstrom. com, provided sunnies that mirrored the Collage Collection. Rooted in the lifestyle of adventure and excitement, Libby, creates exotic designs inspired by her love for the island-her home.
Indah owns and operates their own eco-friendly, solar powered and no waste water fabric processing facility. The brand can be found in retail boutiques nationwide including Planet Blue, Urban Outfitters, Revolve Clothing, iShine, Shopbop and Nasty Gal. By building upon what has stood the test of time, Electric reengineers classics. The brand designs and markets sunglasses, snow goggles and helmets, watches, backpacks, luggage and accessories. After IMG announced in May that it would be pulling out of what was formerly called Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Swim, following the loss of its title sponsor, those involved had a lot of scrambling to do.
Without a strong sponsor or an experienced organizer, could Swim Week even continue in all its stringy, deeply spray-tanned glory? True to the old adage, the show did go on thanks to the somewhat cohesive efforts of the affected brands, production companies and publicists. Kicking off on July 15, this year's Swim Week has appeared entirely unblemished - or the collections have, anyway.
Old pros like Mara Hoffman and Mikoh delivered even more desirable swimwear for springwhile a few less established names - in the swim world at least - brought some newness to the event. Maxim magazine, for one, showed its first-ever swimwear collection, inspired by Brigitte Bardot and chock-full of high-waisted bottoms and floaty coverups.
Others, like Colombia-made Maaji Swimwear, went the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show route, going all-out on a kooky theme, this year's being a tousled, bohemian-era road trip.
But whether it was inspired by Bardot or Route 66, the common thread between each collection was an abundance barely-there, Brazilian wax-requiring swimwear. As with every year, some looks were so nude, so thinly-covered you'll just have to see them for yourself.
A week spread between the sweaty Miami heat of three separate trade shows - Swim Show, Cabana and Hammock - of various personalities, with relevant brands occupying space in the show that suit their vibe. All of these shows are situated within walking distance of each other. Brands also have parties or fashion shows throughout the four days at nearby hotels and pools, making Miami Swim Week super busy and a whole lotta fun.
There's hot, Miami energy and it's awesome to be seeing a preview of swim collections from the hottest brands for This is the boutique show where the brands showcase in two big, cabana-style tents near the beach with coconuts issued to buyers, media and guests on entry.
A few of our faves included Beach Riot, Minimale Animale, Tori Praver Swim, Mara Hoffman, Bec and Bridge, Boys and Arrows and Bower Swim. Situated in the W Hotel, with the coolest brands of today occupying the luxury suites to showcase their latest collection with their marketing teams and a bevy of hot models. FACEBOOK FAN PAGE. On the first night we hit the Mikoh "Aloha" presentation at the 1 Hotel in South Beach. We were greeted with shark-tooth Caliche cocktails and an amazing swim collection that I found hard to better over the next 3 days.
The collection is described as sister co-founders Oleema and Kalani Miller's love letter to Hawaii. From this point on the pace was set and the action didn't stop. I think you get the idea of how we got the party started in the heat of Miami. Poolside, party time and everything in between. This year I took two cameras, my old camera that I've always used, and my new camera that takes better quality photos.
However, my new camera isn't very convenient for carrying while I'm cycling, so I used that one before and after the ride, and my older one during the ride. At one point, the lens must have rubbed on my hand and got a small amount of grease from my sun protection spray, which has lowered the quality of some of these photos, but as soon as I noticed it and gave it a rub, the quality increased again.
Comments are appreciated. If you are the owner of a blog and want to share this photo, please attribute it to me and link back here! Thank you! FACEBOOK LINK: KAOHS FACEBOOK. On Friday, July 15th,hundreds of guests including top media, influencers and buyers, attended the WET Lounge, at the W South Beach, to experience a amazing runway show. Kaohs Swim debuted its Resort and Spring collections at the W South Beach in Miami, which included 22 new bikinis and three returning favorites: Hampton Salty bikini, Rie bikini and Gypsy bikini - famously worn by Kim Kardashian.
In addition to the three returning bikinis, the new collection included 16 new tops, two never-seen-before one-pieces, and 15 new bottoms. Macro wildlife. The 'Wow Factor'. Created by Michael McGibbon. Fruit Trees with Fruit. Created by Shutterbug Windmills and Wind Turbines. Created by CrowB0t. Vintage Jeeps. Created by Alius Imago. Pies and Tarts in colour. Judged by arunkumarmadhan.
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